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Key Economic Data 
  2003 2002 2001 Ranking(2003)
Millions of US $ 29,749 24,205 22,400 60
GNI per capita
 US $ 1,780 1,510 1,350 119
Ranking is given out of 208 nations - (data from the World Bank)

Books on Kazakstan


Update No: 320 - (31/08/07)

The survivor of Central Asia
The president of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, has been around in politics for a long time. He was head of the Kazakh Communist Party in 1989, a date which spelt doom for many a communist leader in Europe. But not for him.
Only Islam Karimov, president of Uzbekistan, is still around of former communist bosses in Central Asia. But he runs a very distraught and troubled regime. 

Not so Nazarbayev. He is genuinely rather popular, being the ruler of a country enjoying massive economic growth, thanks to a cornucopia of mineral resources (60% of the Former USSR's as a matter of fact). GDP growth is in double figures. It helps that there are under 16 million people in a country the size of Western Europe to share the largesse.

Electoral victory assured
Nazarbayev must be very gratified and confident that he will go on for equally as long as he has lasted so far. After 18 years as Kazakhstan's president, and 16 of post-Soviet independence, he has managed to bend its political system enough to bring it full circle. After a deft revision of the constitution, abolishing the two-term limits so common elsewhere, he can be president for life.

Following parliamentary elections on August 18th, the country has become a one-party state once again. The authoritarian Mr Nazarbayev, who heads the winning Nur Otan ("Ray of Light-Fatherland") Party, is once more its undisputed leader, with an added bonus: the country is now a nominal democracy.

Nur Otan won all the contested 98 seats of the Majilis, the lower house of parliament, with 88% of the vote. None of the other six parties in the running, including Ak Zhol ("Bright Path") Party and the opposition All-National Social Democratic Party, managed to cross the 7% threshold needed to qualify for any seats at all. That 7% figure is not a matter of chance. It is widely agreed by academic election observers, that in a new nation with tight media controls and other restrictions to political freedom and organisation, that the 7% threshold is unreasonably high.

The opposition has cried foul and intends to file judicial complaints. But Kazakhstan is not famous for the rule of law, and, if the past is any guide, they will not get very far. The Social Democrats, who had expected from opinion polls to win around 20% of the vote, said they would apply to hold a rally at the end of August, but will not take to the streets without official permission.

OSCE has its doubts
According to the election-observer mission of the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), a number of international standards were not met. The vote-counting was flawed in over 40% of polling stations the observers visited. But it was said that these elections "move Kazakhstan forward in its evolution towards a democratic country". This did not stop one OSCE official, Lubomir Kopaj, from adding that he had "never seen a democratic country with only one party in parliament". But Mr Nazarbayev crowed that the election had overall been approved as the first free and fair election in Kazakhstan's history. 

The OSCE's assessment of the election, moved up by two years so that constitutional changes passed in May to strengthen parliament could go into effect, is vital in Kazakhstan's controversial bid for the organisation's rotating chairmanship in 2009. Although Kazakhstan is clearly not the ideal candidate for this role, Mr Nazarbayev craves the international recognition it would bestow. After intense lobbying among the other 55 OSCE member states, only the American and British governments stand in the way of a favourable decision expected in December. Nazarbayev's bid remains controversial! 

Lesson for Russia?
Whatever the longer-term outcome, Kazakh-style democracy will be closely watched in neighbouring Central Asian republics. Even Russia may not be immune. The constitutional amendments also give Mr Nazarbayev, who is 67, the right to stand again as often as he likes after the end of his term in 2012. He could be president for life. But nobody knows of course how long that life might be. 

In an interview with Russian television, Mr Nazarbayev has urged Russia's president, Vladimir Putin, due to step down next spring, to ignore what people abroad say and run for another term. A president should do what is best for his people and the state, he said. The chairman of Russia's election commission, Vladimir Churov, promptly replied in a Russian newspaper that "Nazarbayev is a politician of international standing whose words should be carefully considered."

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