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PHILIPPINES


 

 

Key Economic Data 
 
  2003 2002 2001 Ranking(2003)
GDP
Millions of US $ 80,574 77,076 71,400 43
         
GNI per capita
 US $ 1,080 1,020 1,050 135
Ranking is given out of 208 nations - (data from the World Bank)

Books on The Philippines

REPUBLICAN REFERENCE

Area (sq.km) 
300,000

Population 
84,619,974

Capital
Manila

Currency 
Philippine peso (PHP) 

President 
Gloria
Macapagal-Arroyo


 


Update No: 033 - (02/10/06)

It was the most severe typhoon to hit the Philippines in more than a decade and it struck on the morning of 28th September. AT its height, the wind was gusting at more than 200 km/hour. It was all over in a matter of hours but the damage will take days-maybe weeks-to clean up. The whole of the Northern Philippines, embracing the island of Luzon lost its electrical supply and Manila was in a state of brownout for days. At the time of writing, much of Southern Luzon is still without power and may be so until the end of the first week of October.
The death toll from typhoon "Milenyo" (international name: Xangsane) initially has been put at 61 but this may go considerably higher once reports from outlying provinces are to hand. Many people have been reported as missing. Damage to the economy has yet to be reckoned but will be severe, especially to agriculture. Already, those tasked with crunching the numbers are saying that the typhoon damage will certainly require a reassessment of the growth target for the remainder of 2006.
A middle-income country?
The latest outlook of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) paints an optimistic picture of the local economy. The MF sees the Philippines growing by 5.4 percent in 2007, faster than the projected 5.0 percent growth for 2006. It said strong remittances and continuous fiscal consolidation in the country would support such growth levels this year and next.
Per capita GDP of the Philippines is now estimated to be around the US$1400 level-a disclosure that prompted Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo to pronounce that the Philippines has now left the ranks of the "Third World" and should be regarded as a "Second World" country. Diehard Marxists would turn in their grave. Traditionally the "Second World" has referred to that group of countries (now a remnant) that follow a Marxist-style agenda. The term has actually fallen into disrepute in recent years and is now rarely used. President Arroyo, of course, took the term to mean that the Philippines should now be regarded as a "middle income" country.
It made for an interesting sound-byte but really, in a country where more than 30 percent are still living below the official poverty line (and twice that number would consider themselves "poor" it shows the extent the government will go to put any positive spin on the numbers. (Neighbouring Taiwan has the equivalent figure of US$12,670 per head).
The IMF said that remittances, which account for more than 10 percent of GDP in the Philippines, have proved much more stable over time than private capital flows and they do not create obligations in the future. Nevertheless, over-reliance on remittance earnings breeds complacency and only underscores the failure of government to produce sufficient jobs to grow the domestic economy.
The IMF attributed its growth forecast for Asia to the ability of member economies to contain inflation despite oil price hikes. The slowdown in inflation is attributed to monetary action and foreign exchange appreciation. Inflation rate in the Philippines is seen to ease to 5 percent in 2007 from 6.7 percent in 2006.

Government eyes even higher growth
Despite the optimistic forecast by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for the Philippine economy in 2007, the government is apparently not satisfied with this outlook. The National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) insists that gross domestic product (GDP) growth will pick up to a range of 5.7 to 6.5 percent next year from around 5.5 to 6.2 percent this year. The IMF forecasts a 5.4 percent growth for the Philippines in 2007, slightly lower than its original estimate of 5.6 percent, in line with its prediction that regional growth would slow due to persisting high oil prices.
Socioeconomic Planning Secretary and NEDA director general Romulo Neri, however, said the government is sticking to its GDP growth targets because it had already factored in the expected high oil prices. "The current average for 2006 so far is US$63.27 per barrel for Dubai Crude. This is lower than our forecast of US$63.42 per barrel. We project higher prices for 2007, at US$67.05 per barrel. With this assumption, and examining our growth trends in agriculture, industry and services, we project 2007 GDP growth to be 5.7 to 6.5 percent," Secretary Neri said.
NEDA also claimed that IMF growth projections were typically lower than the actual GDP growth rates in the country. For example, the IMF growth forecast for the Philippines was 4.0 percent for 2002, 2003 and 2004. However, the actual GDP growth rates achieved during those periods were 4.4 percent, 4.9 percent and 6.2 percent, respectively. 
Of course, all of this was before the calamity of last week. It remains to be seen what revisions to the short-term forecast may be necessary but a shaving of a quarter of a percentage point from this year's target may be necessary,

Hoping for the best and preparing for the worst
Could the Philippines go the same way as Thailand and face the prospects of a real military coup (as distinct from rumours of coup)? 
Following the Thai military coup, the local stock and currency markets in the Philippines flickered but recovered quickly leading the Philippine government to dismiss the brief drop in the value of the peso and of stocks on September 20 as a "knee-jerk" reaction. Socioeconomic Planning Secretary Romulo Neri noted that since the coup, the local currency and stock markets have recovered, "proving that the Philippine economy will not be hit hard by political trouble in other Southeast Asian countries."
"The images of tanks [on the streets of Bangkok and shown] on CNN were dramatic, but for the Philippine economy, it was just another day at the office," Secretary Neri said. "Uncertainty has vanished now that the revered King of Thailand has endorsed the new leadership. And the putsch is nothing really new to Thailand - the nation has had 17 coups since the end of World War II," he added.
He may well be right in the short-term but it gives the government very little long-term comfort since the only way it is holding to government is to reward senior military leaders with lucrative government positions upon their retirement. This has led to a noticeable turn to the right in the manner in which policy is decided and implemented in the Philippines. The process is being driven from the top down and the consultative process, vibrant in a mature or maturing democracy has gone out the window.
The President, who was in Europe during the month, appears to have taken a severe tongue lashing from several European leaders regarding the turn her government is taking and especially the extra judicial killings that have increased on her watch-600 plus and counting. "There will be no whitewash" said the President upon her return and in establishing a commission to investigate the killings. We hope not.

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