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Key Economic Data 
  2003 2002 2001 Ranking(2003)
Millions of US $ 136,833 107,522 114,100 34
GNI per capita
 US $ 2,000 1,710 1,680 110
Ranking is given out of 208 nations - (data from the World Bank)

Books on Iran


Area (
1.648 million




Iranian rials

Mohammad Khatami-Ardakani

Update No: 047 - (28/10/05)

Defeat at IAEA
Contrary to the expectations of many, Iran suffered a defeat at the October IAEA meeting, which decide to refer it to the Security Council over alleged violations of the non-proliferation treaty. Iran was certainly disappointed at the abstention of Russia and China, whose contrary vote it expected, but was especially angry at India for having voted in favour of Iran's referral. The only country which voted against was in the end Venezuela. Iran's foreign affairs spokesman hinted that Iran might reconsider its flourishing economic relations with India because of that vote. In fact, India's stance was a major development for that country, the first instance in which it moved away from its traditional policy of non-alignment. It is disputable whether this was dictated by any genuine apprehension over Iran's nuclear programme, or by the desire to get closer to the United States, a country known to be reconsidering its long-term partnerships in South Asia, probably at the expense of Pakistan. Iran's diplomats quickly had to make clear that no economic retaliation would be considered - that in any case would have damaged Iran more than India. Later Iran's president Ahmadinejad even threatened to withhold oil supplies if its country was referred to the Security Council and again had to backtrack. These two episodes show that the Iranian leadership was seriously taken aback by the development. Since then Russian diplomatic activity has intensified and appears to have somewhat reassured the Iranians that Moscow will not allow sanctions to be imposed on Iran, but the fact remains that Teheran suffered its first defeat in the nuclear row with the US. Pressure on Iran remained high throughout October also because of British allegations that the Iranians are supporting the insurgency in Iraq. By mid-October, Iran was signalling a softening of its position, hinting that it may grant access to observers interested in its nuclear program, which is one of a number of IAEA demands. 

Khamenei seeks counter-balance to the new right
At the beginning of October Supreme Guide Khamenei surprised many by extending the powers of the Expediency Council, headed by Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, the defeated presidential candidate. This body will now supervise the implementation by the government and the parliament of a 20 year development plan drafted by the Council itself. It would appear that Khamenei, worried at the assertiveness of the new right now in control of both parliament and presidency, is now trying to counter-balance its power by extending that of other institutional bodies. Within the parliament too more rumbles are being heard, especially about the Interior Minister, who is rapidly becoming unpopular because of his failure to consult parliament over the appointment of governors.
The new government definitely has a security-focused agenda, as the reported expansion of the Basij voluntary force shows, but its agenda also does seem to include a genuine intention of making the regime more efficient. The Minister of Interior Purmohammadi hinted in October that more powers might be devolved to the provinces and municipalities. He also raised the issue of improving Iran's economic productivity, which remains low even by the standards of the developing world. President Ahmadinejad himself complained about the inefficiency of the banking sector, but in typical fashion continued to express hostility towards private banks and identified the solution in "better supervision". 

Foreign investment figures released
According to UNCTAD, Iran received foreign investment worth almost US$5 billion in 2004, a big increase over the previous year's US$1.5 billion. On the other hand, UNCTAD was rather negative about Iran's innovation capability, where it ranked it 75th of 117 countries, and about its human capital, where it ranked 81st. The increase in foreign investment, however modest in terms of the needs, is nonetheless remarkable given the constraints that still exist in Iran. Foreign investors, for example, can only buy up to 10% of the value of any company listed on the stock exchange. This might have contributed to the negative performance of the Teheran stock exchange since May 2005, although the main reasons were others. Concerns over Iran's foreign policy and the apparently negative attitude of President Ahmadinejad towards the stock exchange conspired to create a climate of uncertainty around it. Since 80% of the market value of the stock exchange is owned by state institutions and only about 200 companies trade regularly, manipulation of stock prices is relatively easy, another factor which might be deterring investors. 

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Statoil to develop oil activities in Iran 

The Statoil Iran company's newly appointed Managing Director, Olave Hieger, recently stated that Statoil Iran is currently implementing several development projects of phases 6-8 of the South Pars gas field. 
Hieger expressed hope that the company would make new contracts with National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), after the negotiations presently underway with the NIOC subsidiaries, Iranmania recently reported.
Commenting on the cooperation between his company and Petropars Co in developing phase 12 of the giant gas field, Hieger noted that the officials of both companies have held several meetings on this issue and so far the discussions have progressed well. 
Speaking on the progress made in the phases 6-8 of the South Pars, he said that certain parts of the project, such as installation of the offshore platforms and drilling the production wells have witnessed good progress.
Hieger concluded that domestic and foreign oil companies working in Iran are waiting for appointment of the new oil minister and the probable change of the policies. 
He added that when plans of the government and the new minister are determined, the implementation of the projects could be accelerated.

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