REPUBLICAN REFERENCE

Area (sq.km)
17,098,242

Population
142,517,670

Currency 
Rouble

Capital 
Moscow

President 
Vladimir Putin

RUSSIA

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CIA World Factbook

UNHCR Country Profile

Russia: Government of the Russian Federation

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Press Freedom Score

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The defeat of the Russian Empire in World War I led to the seizure of power by the communists and the formation of the USSR. The brutal rule of Josef STALIN (1924-53) consolidated communist rule of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into 15 independent republics. Since then, Russia has struggled in its efforts to build a democratic political system and market economy to replace the strict social, political, and economic controls of the communist period.  Now, President Puten has been effectively a policy of re-centralising power within the enormous Russian Federation, back to the Kremlin in Moscow.

 

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