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ROMANIA


 

 

In-depth Business Intelligence

Key Economic Data 
 
  2002 2001 2000 Ranking(2002)
GDP
Millions of US $ 44,428 38,700 38,200 52
         
GNI per capita
 US $ 1,850 1,720 1,610 108
Ranking is given out of 208 nations - (data from the World Bank)

Books on Romania

REPUBLICAN REFERENCE

Area (sq.km)
237,500

Population
22,271,839 

Capital 
Bucharest 

Currency 
Leu

President 
Ion Iliescu

Private sector 
% of GDP 
40%

  

Update No: 092 - (01/01/05)

The mayor wins; Trajan recidivus
The presidential election in Romania on December 12th has been won by the mayor of Bucharest, Traian Basescu, 51% to 49%. He represents a break with the communist past, with which his defeated rival, the current premier Adrian Nastase, is indelibly associated. He has had the support of the educated middle class, who fervently want to see Romania part of Europe.
His very name is suggestive of Romania's European future. Trajan was the Roman emperor who incorporated Dacia, as it then was, into the Roman Empire in 117 AD. The language and culture of Romania have remained latinate ever since.
Nastase had the support of the small farmers, who fear, not without reason, that they have most to lose from EU regulations. But Nastase, like Basescu, is a firm advocate of EU membership, as are virtually all Romanians, highly conscious of their Latin origins.
The surprise victory of Basescu, therefore, will produce no great change of policy on Europe. Nor is it likely to engender any great change in the approach to Romania's paralysing problems. The fact is that it is afflicted with pervasive corruption and an absence of a proper rule of law. There is no independent judiciary or protection for the media.
The deadlines to improve these criteria of democratic adequacy were relaxed by the European Commission, given the need to have a reasonably-held election. 

Justice and Truth
The victor's party, Justice and Truth Alliance, is deemed less venal than the former communists. But during the opposition's brief spell in power in the late 1990s it made little inroads into the major problem of corruption. A corrupt culture of party barons and millionaire oligarchs continues to dominate political life. It will take decades to resolve this conundrum and the EU commissioners are well aware of that.
Mr Basescu now faces the difficult task of forming a viable coalition government. He will almost certainly ask his own centre-right Justice and Truth Alliance to nominate a cabinet, which needs to be approved by parliament. However, Mr Nastase's Social Democrats (PSD) won 189 seats in the 469 parliament in December, while the alliance won 161. Mr Basescu has proposed his running mate, Calin Tariceanu, of the National Liberal Party, as the next premier.
In the course of the campaign Mr Basescu promised to crack down on graft. He denounced his rivals as villains and gangsters. "This is a dirty system that destroys political opponents...but I tell them now: 'Boys, you cannot destroy me!'" Time will surely tell!

Profile of the winner
Basescu campaigned on a tough anti-corruption platform and has a reputation for being outspoken and down-to-earth. Born near Romania's main seaport of Constanta, Basescu pursued a career as a sailor and commanded the biggest ship in the Romanian fleet for six years. He was a rank-and-file communist party member. 
After the bloody 1989 Romanian revolution which toppled communist dictator Nicolae Ceausescu, Basescu got involved in politics and served as transport minister in the 1990s. 
In 2000 he became the mayor of Romania's capital, Bucharest, where he embarked on a programme of rapid renovation in the decaying city. His can-do image is reflected in a record of improvements for Bucharest, some of them achieved in unorthodox ways. He led a crackdown on stray dogs and urban eyesores. "I am elected by the people of Bucharest, not the dogs," he said, scornfully dismissing the complaints of Western animal rights activists. 
When the government blocked his plans for a new overpass and better central heating for the city, he went over their heads and asked citizens to sign a petition, shaming the officials into caving in. 
He is one of the few Romanian politicians bold enough to speak up for gay rights - an issue his opponents tried to use against him in the run-up to the election. 
Mr Basescu's campaign had echoes of that of Viktor Yushchenko - the opposition presidential candidate in neighbouring Ukraine, who brought thousands of people onto the streets to protest against alleged election abuses. As in Ukraine, the Romanian opposition made orange their main colour and the Ukrainian "Tak!" ("Yes") became the Romanian "Da!" as their main slogan. 
Although the ruling ex-communist Social Democratic Party (PSD) took Romania into Nato and prepared the ground for the country to join the EU in 2007, Mr Basescu is seen as a more pro-Western candidate. 
Unlike his opponents, whom he accuses of widespread corruption, Mr Basescu is not associated with the old communist regime. His victory is likely to be applauded in most Western capitals. 
He has long been seen as the main challenger to the dominant PSD.

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AUTOMOBILES

Car sales continue growth

New car sales recorded a 31.5 per cent increase to 113,751 units in the first 10 months of 2004 compared to the same period of 2003, the Association of Automotive Manufacturers and Importers (APIA) said recently, Mediafax reported.
In October alone, 15,434 cars were sold, representing an 11.1 per cent increase on the month before. Dacia sold 46,251 units in the first 10 months of 2004, posting a 35.8 per cent rise from the same period of 2003, the APIA said.

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CREDIT RATINGS

Fitch upgrades Romania to investment grade

Fitch Ratings Agency said recently it had upgraded Romania by two notches to investment grade, mentioning the progress made by the country's economy in the last period. Fitch rated Romania's long-term foreign currency and local currency sovereign ratings as BBB- and BBB respectively, from BB and BB+. Following the upgrade, the Outlook is now Stable, said the rating agency, New Europe reported.
"The upgrade is supported by Romania's prudent fiscal policy, advances on key structural reforms and good prospects for European Union accession," the rating agency said in a statement.
Fitch said most key public debt sustainability indicators compare favourably with rating peers' and should continue to improve over the next two to three years.
Policy will remain guided by a new IMF programme scheduled to run until July 2006, and the exacting requirements of EU accession, which Fitch expects to occur in January 2007, it said. 
"EU accession remains a big driver of policy discipline and hence improving credit worthiness," according to Nick Eisinger, lead analyst for Romania at Fitch's Sovereigns team. Important breakthroughs in energy reform and privatisations have earned Romania the functioning market economy status from the EU and kept the January 2007 accession date on track.
There will be more focus on the implementation of the chapters following the inclusion of 'safeguard clauses' to the accession process, and in some areas considerable efforts will be needed to conclude negotiations.

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FOOD & DRINK

PepsiCo's joint company buys Star Foods

Snack Ventures Europe (SVE), a joint company owned by PepsiCo and General Mills announced recently it has taken over Star Foods, namely the largest producer and distributor of snacks in Romania, the value of the transaction not being disclosed, New Europe reported.
The purchase will ensure SVE a powerful position on the market in Romania, which is the largest in the Balkans, a company release said.

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FOREIGN LOANS

World Bank lends US$275m to Romania

The World Bank has approved two loans totalling US$275m (€211m) to help Romania modernise its transport system and agriculture industry, the bank said recently, New Europe reported.
The transportation project, worth US$225m (€173m), is aimed at speeding the transport of passengers and freight by building bypass roads in five large Romanian cities and an integrated computer system for railway traffic, said the bank in a statement.
The agricultural project aims to help farmers modernise their production activities, as most farmers are unable to obtain bank loans, having small farms. The improvements will help bring Romania up to European Union standards, the bank said. Romania hopes to join the EU by 2007, added the bank. The World Bank has granted Romania loans totalling over US$4.2bn (€3.23bn) in the last 15 years. The 2004-2005 lending programme amounts to about US$850m (€653m).  

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