Books on Ukraine
Update No: 285 - (01/10/04)
Beslan changes everything
The tragedy at Beslan in southern Russia has brought the Commonwealth of
Independent States (CIS) into full solidarity with the Russians.
At the CIS summit in the Kazakh capital of Astana, in mid-September, they
decided to boost the role of the Anti-Terrorist Centre and draft a concept of
cooperation in the fight against international terrorism and extremism,
Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma said on September 15th. Leaders of the CIS
member states had adopted a statement to condemn terrorist acts, Kuchma, an
outgoing head of the CIS, told a press conference following the CIS summit.
They expressed their full solidarity with Russia in its struggle against
terrorism and believed the spread of international terrorism can be prevented
only by consolidating the efforts of the whole civilized world.
The CIS, set up in 1991, is made up of 12 former Soviet republics. Russian
President Vladimir Putin was elected new chairman of the council of the heads of
state of the CIS at the summit.
Speaking at the CIS forum, Putin lashed out at double standards in the struggle
against world terrorism. "The atrocities we saw in Beslan gave grounds to
say that the bandits are part of world terrorist forces," Putin said.
"The struggle against terrorism envisages only one opinion -- law,
concerted efforts and firmness," he stressed.
The CIS leaders also discussed cooperation in the fight against organized crime,
drug trafficking and illegal migration.
Meanwhile, the presidents signed several documents, including a concept of
cooperation in the containment of illegal migration, an interstate anti-crime
program for 2005-2007, and a programme of cooperation against drug-trafficking
Presidential poll looms
Everything in Ukraine depends on the outcome of presidential elections scheduled
for October 31st. The incumbent, Leonid Kuchma, cannot stand again. Things are
decidedly hotting up, with an attempt on the life of the challenger and
defections from the establishment bloc, both in early September. The defections
have ended the prolonged attempt by the pro- Kuchma forces to introduce
constitutional changes switching power to the premiership away from the
presidency, which the popular challenger, Yushchenko, looks increasingly likely
to win, barring massive electoral fraud. This is looking more and more difficult
to engineer by the day. He is currently on a roll.
The pro-establishment forces were already split, with both the present premier,
Victor Yanukovych, the leader of the Party of Regions, and his predecessor,
Anatoly Kinakh, the head of the Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs,
standing. They are at loggerheads, Kinakh accusing the premier of being
criminal. This in a straightforward electoral contest would be likely to let in
the main opposition figure, also a former premier, Victor Yushchenko, the leader
of Our Ukraine bloc, who was just ahead in the polls in July, even before recent
highly dramatic developments in his favour.
Nearly one half, 46.3%, however, believed In July that the current prime
minister Yanukovych would win, including many not intending to vote for him.
People know how elections are managed in Ukraine, as in October 1999 when Kuchma
was re-elected on a patently rigged ballot.
Things might not be so easily arranged this time round. At least 1,200 foreign
observers, including about 700 from the OSCE, will watch the elections. Deputy
presidential administration head Vasily Baziv said earlier that the elections
could be registered in the Guinness Book of Records for the number of foreign
observers. But how many will even understand Ukrainian? They are no guarantee of
a fair electoral process.
There is unusual public interest in the contest all the same, while the local
bosses, who handed Kuchma a landslide last time, might be wary of doing his
premier the same favour. Nevertheless, Yanukovych is the head of their own
party, the Party of the Regions. Many of them will play safe; but enough to
ensure the victory of the premier? Too much is at stake for many of them to do
otherwise. If the Russian robber boyars are thick as thieves with the local
governors and mayors, how much more so are their Ukrainian equivalents? There
are too many secrets that should never be divulged. But this time round the
outcome is very open. The latest developments seem ominous indeed for the
Attempt on Yushchenko fails
An indication that an upset could yet take place is that it looks very
likely that someone has tried to kill Yushchenko by poisoning. Why would they do
that unless they fear his victory?
Yushchenko fell ill on Sept 6TH. After his condition worsened, he was rushed to
a hospital, sensibly away from Ukraine, in Vienna on Sept 10th where he was
diagnosed with a viral infection and inflammation of the pancreas. Doctors also
detected the presence of unidentified "chemical substances not usually
associated with food products," Yushchenko's campaign chief Oleksandr
He suggested Yushchenko might have been poisoned. "Someone has tried to
prevent Viktor from running," Zinchenko told reporters. The establishment
are clearly badly rattled.
Yushchenko's health has improved significantly in the past few days and he
appeared at a major opposition rally in the Ukrainian capital, Kiev, on
September 18th. This survival from an assassination attempt is of course a
prodigious gift for the challenger. He is acquiring an aura of invincibility
that is decidedly turning things his way.
Pro-presidential bloc is crumbling.
Events took an even worse turn for the establishment shortly after
Yushchenko fell ill, quite possibly from widespread disgust at the resort to
strong-arm tactics. They are so reminiscent of the Gongadze affair in 2000 when
an investigative journalist looking into the murky practices of the regime,
notably the rigged re-election of Kuchma the previous year, was found beheaded
after the president had been 'taped' calling for him to be "dealt
Ukraine's parliamentary majority has been a heterogeneous coalition cobbled
together after the 2002 elections. Its thin majority could be seen in May 2002,
when Volodymyr Lytvyn, head of the Agrarians, was elected parliamentary speaker
by a one-vote margin, which resulted from the defection of one Communist deputy.
The majority increased its size by another 15-20 deputies in 2002-2003 through
intimidation and blackmail of opposition factions. These additional
"recruits" were always likely to be the first to abandon the majority
when the opportunity arose, as the Agrarians have just done.
The hard core of the pro-presidential majority in the Ukrainian parliament long
consisted of presidential administration head Medvedchuk's SDPUo and Prime
Minister Yanukovych's Regions of Ukraine party, representing the Kiev and Donbas
clans respectively. Together these two factions make up 103 out of the 183 seats
of what is left of the parliamentary "majority". A third member of the
"majority" is led by Sergei Tyhipko, the head of Yanukovych's
campaign. Tyhipko's Labor Ukraine party, although representing the important
Dnipropetrovsk clan, is the smallest of the oligarchic parties with a bare
30,000 members. This faction adds another 30 deputies.
If elected president, Yushchenko has promised to create a broad new
parliamentary majority. This could include Tyhipko's Labor Ukraine (Tyhipko was
a member of the 2000-2001 Yushchenko government), but would certainly exclude
the SDPUo. Former President Leonid Kravchuk, the SDPUo parliamentary faction
leader, has already stated that the SDPUo is ready, if Yanukovych loses the
elections, to move from a party-of-power to an opposition party.
The pro-government bloc began to unravel when 15 of the 30 deputies in the
moderate Democratic Initiatives-People's Power faction defected in early
September. The split is a major blow to Yanukovych's electoral campaign. He
immediately described the move as "treacherous," caused by the acute
"politicization" of the 2004 presidential elections. "It is
unpleasant for me to say this, but I have no choice but to do so: currently
parliament is becoming an unproductive partner" of the government,
Ukrayinska Pravda reported on 11 September. The move is especially harmful as
this faction is headed by Stepan Havrysh, Yanukovych's own official
representative in the Central Election Commission.
Another 21 deputies in the Agrarian faction have also withdrawn from the
parliamentary majority, the faction led by Lytvyn, the speaker of parliament.
Lytvyn was head of the presidential administration in 1997-2002 and head of the
pro-presidential For a United Ukraine bloc in the March 2002 parliamentary
Along with these defections in parliament, Crimean branches of Yanukovych's
Regions of Ukraine and Medvedchuk's SDPUo are defecting to challenger Viktor
Yushchenko's "Our Ukraine". Members of Yanukovych's coalition, such as
Ivan Czyzh's All-Ukrainian Union of the Left - Justice, have also defected in
the key Donetsk region, and the Democratic Party's branch in the Crimea has also
gone over to Yushchenko, local media reported. The rats are leaving the sinking
Looming defeat for the Kuchma crowd
Two factors help to account for Lytvyn's disassociation from Yanukovych.
First, Lytvyn is naturally concerned for his personal survival in the post-Kuchma
era. Lytvyn was one of those present during the meeting tape- recorded by
presidential guard Mykola Melnychenko where President Kuchma ordered Interior
Minister Yury Kravchenko to "deal with "opposition journalist Georgy
Gongadze. Gongadze was abducted on September 16, 2000, and his decapitated body
found two months later. The Gongadze issue remains unresolved and is a prime
factor contributing towards Ukraine's poor international image.
Second, moderates in the pro-presidential camp are alarmed at a number of vexing
issues. Personal hostility between Lytvyn and current presidential
administration head Viktor Medvedchuk is acute, particularly since parliament
condemned the blatant fraud in the April mayoral elections in Mukachiv.
Since the summer Lytvyn has complained about Medvedchuk's Social Democratic
United Party (SDPUo) decision to support the Peasant Party as a pliant
alternative to Lytvyn's Agrarians, including attempts to poach its members. The
withdrawal of Lytvyn's Agrarians has scuppered Kuchma and Medvedchuk's second
attempt to railroad constitutional changes through parliament before election
day. In March the first defectors from the pro-presidential camp created the
Centre faction that led to the failure of the first attempt to switch key powers
from the president to the prime minister.
Level playing field for all candidates
Communist Party candidate Petro Symonenko, who supports the constitutional
changes, has therefore criticized the disintegration of the pro-presidential
parliamentary majority. Meanwhile, Yushchenko, who always believed the
constitutional changes were meant to take executive power away from him in the
event of his election victory, welcomed its disintegration, Interfax-Ukraine
reported on 10 September.
Moderates in the pro-regime camp have also long been unhappy with the choice of
presidential candidate Yanukovych, both because of his criminal record and his
Donbas links. Yet another factor is the way in which Yanukovych is conducting
his electoral campaign which, despite pledges by himself and President Kuchma to
hold free and fair elections, has been marred by massive violations.
Parliament, therefore, voted on 7 September for two resolutions. One resolution,
which was supported by 390 deputies, called for an equal playing field for all
presidential candidates, especially with regard to media access. Three
television channels controlled by Medvedchuk (State Channel 1, 1+1, and Inter)
provide positive coverage of Yanukovych and only highly negative coverage of
Yushchenko. The second resolution, creating a commission to investigate campaign
infractions, was only adopted because the Agrarians supported it. Not
surprisingly, the SDPUo was the least supportive of both resolutions, as they
were tantamount to criticism of the presidential administration's manipulative
role in the election campaign. Yanukovych, whose faction also did not support
the second resolution, ordered the Justice Ministry to provide a legal
assessment of the parliamentary commission. The newly formed commission is
headed by Lytvyn and includes one representative from each faction, the Central
Election Commission, and different branches of the security forces.
Lukewarm 'majority' members
The remaining factions in the parliamentary "majority" are even
more lukewarm members. The People's Democratic Party (NDP) has a joint faction
of 17 deputies with Anatoly Kinakh's Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs (PPPU).
This group unites Valery Pustovoitenko's NDP, which officially supports
Yanukovych but is highly unenthusiastic, with Kinakh, who is a presidential
Kinakh is on record as stating that anybody with a criminal record (i.e. Prime
Minister Yanukovych) should not be allowed to become president, according to
Ukrayinska Pravda. Not surprisingly, Yanukovych has launched proceedings to
revoke Kinakh's candidacy. His parliamentary vote is now down to only 183
deputies, compared to 198 members of the four opposition factions. The steadfast
members of the pro-presidential camp are the SDPUo (40), Regions of Ukraine
(63), and, to a lesser degree, Labor Ukraine (30). As one well-known commentator
pointed out before these latest defections, "Viktor Yanukovych does not
have real allies, except for the Regions of Ukraine Party."
The honest man among thieves
Yushchenko has an arresting air of the plain-spoken, honest technocrat which
for many years he was. He headed the central bank at the turn of the century
just when the economy began to pick up. Hence his popularity. He has a clean
record for a Ukrainian politician. Yushchenko mortgaged his flat to give the
electoral deposit of 500,000 grivnas (about $100,000 ), whereas another
candidate, parliament member Leonid Chernovetsky, the leader of the Christian
Liberal Party, admitted to having an annual salary of $1.5 million from his post
as chairman of Pravex Bank. A very large sum for an Ukrainian, which few believe
could have been acquired honestly, although in this they may be mistaken.
While Yushchenko is generally seen as the pro-Western candidate, he has actually
pledged to remove all Ukraine's 1,600 soldiers from Iraq. The murky Kuchma, by
contrast, keen to ingratiate himself with Washington, offered the contingent
soon after the war, the largest after that of the UK, under Polish leadership.
Knife-edge result likely
There are other candidates in the field, but they have little chance, even
the communists, who attract the poor and elderly, usually impoverished in
Ukraine. They and the socialists and liberals may play a spoiling role,
benefiting Yanukovych, much as Ralph Nader inevitably helps the Republicans in
The distance between Yushchenko and Yanukovich became shorter in August to one
percent from July's five percent, according to a poll conducted by the Russian
foundation, Public Opinion. Twenty-eight percent then would have voted for
Yushchenko and 27 percent for Yanukovich. The poll was conducted among 2,000
people in 111 residential areas in Ukraine's all regions and the Crimean
Autonomous Republic. But note the provenance of the organisers of the poll.
An even more recent poll shows the gap widening again to five percent once more.
All these results are well within the margin of sampling error. Moreover, they
date from prior to the latest turn of events in the challenger's favour.
A candidate needs to gain over 50 percent of votes to win the elections. If none
gains the required number of votes, two leading candidates will come to the
The Ukrainians will know their fate at about the same time as the Americans.
Every bit as much is at stake for them as for the inhabitants of the US. The
world will not pay so much attention to it. But in one capital there will be
keen interest, Moscow. Putin will be hoping that Kuchma's man comes through.
Yanukovych is just the type of apparatchik that the Kremlin likes to deal with,
a safe pair of hands in every sense - no nonsense about democracy with him!
Ukraine's PM changes tack with Brussels over EU membership
Premier Yanukovich has moderated his approach to the European Union,
proposing more limited ties rather than demanding an early promise of
membership, Britain's Financial Times newspaper said on September 10th."In
the past the idea of Ukraine's entry into the EU was declared but nothing
concrete was done," Yanukovich told the newspaper. "Sometimes the
impression was created that Ukraine is breaking down the door to Europe but the
EU is holding it shut."
He said he hoped a new step-by-step approach would still lead to Ukraine
"one day becoming a European Union member". His comments are
significant because he is widely considered as less pro-Western and closer to
the Kremlin than his chief electoral rival, Yushchenko.
Actually, there is nothing more likely to give a new big push to Ukraine's EU
bid than a victory for Yushchenko. The republic may be on the brink of very
historic developments indeed.
AVIATION & SPACE
Kiev and Beijing to draw up new space programme
Ukraine and China are to draw up before June 2005 a new draft long-term
cooperation programme on research and peaceful use of space for 2006-2010, the
National Space Agency of Ukraine said recently. On August 25-27th Kiev hosted
the fourth meeting of the Ukrainian-Chinese intergovernmental sub-commission for
cooperation in space industry, Interfax News Agency reported.
During the meeting, the parties agreed that closer cooperation is needed in the
implementation of joint projects. In addition, the parties said the new
programme would introduce joint implementation of large-scale projects. A joint
ad hoc team will be created by the year-end to elaborate the draft programme,
In addition, the parties adjusted new directions of joint work including in
research, joint use of satellite viewing data, and joint data processing in
frames of international space projects.
The new programme is due to be confirmed at a regular meeting of the
sub-commission to be held in the fourth quarter of 2005 in Beijing. During the
meeting the parties also discussed execution of the cooperation programme for
2001-2005 and confirmed a cooperation plan for 2004-2005. The meeting
participants noted that Ukraine's enterprises of the space industry have
completed about 50 contracts worth US$20m since 1991.
Aviant plant to sell 15 cargo planes to Mideast
Ukrainian aircraft manufacturer, Aviant, recently announced the sale of 15 cargo
planes to customers in the Middle East next year, Interfax News Agency reported.
All cargo planes will be the An-32 twin-engine propeller aircraft, said Oleg
Schevchenko, Aviant director general.
Customers will include national airlines or private air transportation companies
in Libya, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates, he said. During 2004, Aviant
delivered or expects deliver up to five An-32 aircraft to the region.
Schevchenko declined to make public other customers or financial details of the
sales. An An-32 costs between US$500,000 and US$1.5m, depending on the equipment
and previous usage.
The An-32 is a Soviet designed, short-range plane known for its ability to
operate in rugged conditions, if not always offer its maximum 40 passengers
modern comfort. It is most commonly used for military cargo and personnel
State-owned Aviant has expanded production in recent years to develop and
produce the An-140, a modern twin-engine passenger plane now produced under
licence in Iran.
Other Aviant projects include the joint development of a four-engine military
transport plane with Russia, and domestic development of a twin-engine jet cargo
aircraft for the Ukrainian Air Force.
Aval gets US$45m foreign syndicate loan
The Kiev-based bank Aval has received a US$45m syndicated loan organised by
Deutsche Bank AG London, Raiffeisen Zentralbank Osterreich AG and Raiffeisenbank
Ukraine under a deal signed August 16th.
Interfax quoted Aval's press service as saying recently that Abu Dhabi
Commercial Bank, ABN Amro Bank NV, Commerzbank AG and Dresdner Bank AG are also
involved in the loan.
The lead managers are American Express Bank Gmb, Bank Austria Creditanstalt AG,
Bankgesellschaft Berlin AG, BRED Banque Populaire and Export-Import Bank of the
Republic of china. The managers are AKA Ausfuhrkredit-Gesellschaft Gmb, Banco
Internacionale do Funchal and SA OKO Bank.
The syndicated credit is for one year at an annual Libor+3.8%. The terms of the
deal specify that the loan funds are to be used for crediting trade projects
under foreign economic contracts.
The payment agent for the syndicated agreement is Deutsche Bank Trust Company
Ukraine produces more coal
Coal mining enterprises in Ukraine increased coal extraction 4.2% year-on-year
to 47.5m tonnes in January-July, Interfax reported recently, citing data from
the Ukrainian Fuel and Energy Ministry. Coal production slipped 0.8%
year-on-year to 6.6m tonnes just in July. Coking coal production increased 0.6%
to 21.8m tonnes in January-July. Output of power-generating coal increased 7.5%
year-on-year to 25.7m tonnes in January-July, 4.5% to 3.7m tonnes in July.
Ukraine produced 79.255m tonnes of coal in 2003, 3.2% more than in 2002. The
country plans to produce 80.3m tonnes in 2004.
Ukraine's Naftogaz to bid for MOL gas assets
Ukraine's oil and gas firm Naftogaz Ukrainy said on August 30th that it was
interested in buying the gas units of Hungary's oil and gas group, MOL, Interfax
News Agency reported.
"Naftogaz Ukrainy sent the Hungarian oil and gas company MOL a request to
take part in the privatisation of MOL's transportation and storage units,"
Naftogaz said in a statement. Naftogaz gave no other details. MOL's board of
directors decided in February of this year to look into selling its three gas
division subsidiaries - Foldgaztarolo, Foldgazszallito and Foldgazellato or find
a strategic partner. According to a recent statements by senior MOL officials,
MOL is likely to sell 75 per cent of the three companies and to retain the
remainder. MOL will announce the number of bids it received by Friday September
2nd. Potential bidders are likely to include Russia's Gazprom, Germany's Ruhrgas
and Gaz de France, which, together with Austria's OMV spokesman said on August
27th, however, that his company had not submitted a bid. OMV owns 9.1 per cent
Ukrtransnafta filling Odessa-Brody pipeline
Ukrtransnafta, the operator of Ukrainian oil pipelines, has filled 280km of the
Odessa-Brody pipeline with 130,000tn of oil, which is 30% of the technological
oil needed for the pipeline's functioning, Interfax reported recently.
A total of 250,000tn of technological oil from Russia had been cleared through
customs and supplied to Ukraine by August 25th, said the Ukrtransnafta press
service. The oil is being transported to the Odessa-Brody pipeline through
Dnieper trunk pipeline, the report added.
Ukrtransnafta says all of the 425,000tn of technological oil, which is being
delivered under contract with the TNK-BP joint venture between Russia and the
United Kingdom, will be pumped into the Odessa-Brody pipeline in September.
Ukrtransnafta and TNK-BP signed a contract in July 2004 to deliver 9m tn of oil
through the Odessa-Brody pipeline to the Yuzhny sea terminal within 3 years.
They also signed 4 supplements to the contract, which enable Ukrtransnafta to
receive up to US$108m in loans to buy 425,000tn of technological oil and as a
guarantee against financial risk.
The contract was signed on terms of 100% advance payment for oil delivery and
fines for the refusal to transport the specified amount of oil.
Ukrtransnafta started filling the Odessa-Brody pipeline from its 52nd km on
August 1st. The first 52km of the pipeline were filled with Urals oil at the end
of 2002, which enabled the Yuzhny oil terminal to start transhipment of Russian
oil supplied by Dnieper trunk pipelines.
FOREIGN ECONOMIC COOPERATION
Ukrainian premier, Iraqi president discuss cooperation
Ukrainian Prime Minister, Viktor Yanukovych, has stressed during a meeting with
Iraqi President, Ghazi Yawar, that Ukraine will continue to develop bilateral
cooperation with Iraq in political, economic, military, technical and
humanitarian areas, UNIAN News Agency reported.
The press service of the Cabinet of Ministers quoted Yanukovych as saying that
the leadership of the Ukrainian state and the Ukrainian people closely follow
developments in Iraq. Yanukovych stressed that there are traditional historical
ties between Ukraine and Iraq.
Yanukovych expressed confidence that a necessary foundation is currently in
place to deepen cooperation between the two states at a qualitatively new level.
"We are confident that the Iraqi side will appreciate us as a reliable
partner and friend," Yanukovych said. Ukraine sees Iraq as a country with a
great future, he added.
Kiev eyes stabilisation of Russia-Georgia relations
Ukraine is hoping for the stabilisation of Georgian-Russian relations and is
willing to provide aid to Georgia in reaching stability, Interfax quoted Foreign
Ministry spokesman Markiyan Lubkivsky as saying. Commenting on Georgian
President Mikhail Saakashvili's statement that his country is on the verge of
war with Russia, Lubkivsky said: "We hope the situation will stabilise, and
such statements, if they were made and if they were interpreted and reported
exactly as the Georgian president said, will not harm the negotiating
process." Lubkivsky assumed that Saakashvili's statement was pure
"rhetoric and an emotional conversation."
Industrial growth seen at 14%
The Ukrainian Economies Ministry recently said that industrial production will
grow14% in 2004, Interfax reported. Industrial production will grow by 14.5% in
January-August over 2003. In January-July it grew 14.7%. "The industrial
growth is within the forecast and the growth in January-September may be
expected at about 14.5% and in 2004 - 14%," the ministry said in a press
release, cited by Interfax. The ministry said it expects that the favourable
conditions will remain in the traditional markets for Ukraine's engineering
industry: the ministry expects stable supplies by the aircraft industry to
Russia, China, Iran, Africa, and Asia, as well as gradual growth of electronic
equipment exports to the CIS countries. The external demand for products of
Ukraine's metallurgy will remain as well. The main clients will be China, the
CIS countries, countries of the Mideast and the EU. The ministry forecast that
the demand for products of oil and chemical industry will remain high also.
Since the ministry expected the growth of individuals' incomes, it forecast that
there will be growth of consumption and, as a consequence, growth of production
in foods industry. At the same time, the ministry said it does not expect growth
of dairy and meet products due to previous reduction in livestock and poultry.
Kiev firm buys major stake in Ukrainian shipyard
The Yevroresurs company (Kiev) has been declared winner of an 83.61 per cent
stake in the Kherson-based shipyard. The head of the bidding directorate at the
State Property Fund of Ukraine, Volodymyr Cherdakov, said that the winner
offered 52.171m hryvnyas [over US$9.7m] for the stake, with the starting price
set at 46.345m Hryvnyas, Interfax-Ukraine News Agency reported.
The other bidders for the stake were the West-Invest limited company and the
Leninska Kuznya Trading House [the latter is reportedly controlled by
businessman and MP Petro Poroshenko, who is close to opposition Our Ukraine bloc
leader, Viktor Yushchenko].
Number of cellular subscribers increases to 9m
The number of mobile communications subscribers in Ukraine increased 7.0% in
July 2004 and 38% in the first seven months to reach 9.0m people. The cellular
subscriber base expanded 70% from the end of July 2003 to the end of July 2004.
The press service of Ukrainian Mobile Communications said that 4.96m people
currently subscribe to the company's services, which is 48% more than at the
start of 2004. The number of UMC subscribers increased 120% in the year ending
July 31st, 2004, including a 7.0% increase in July.
Interfax quoted a source in ZAO Kievstar GSM as saying the company services
3.86m subscribers. The company's subscriber base increased 7.2% in July, 29%
since the start of the year and 54% in the past year. OOO Golden Telecom (Kiev)
said that company's subscriber base increased 29% in the year ending July 2004.
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