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BOSNIA AND
HERZEGOVINA

Key Economic Data 
 
  2002 2001 2000 Ranking(2002)
GDP
Millions of US $ 5,249 4,800 4,400 109
         
GNI per capita
 US $ 1,270 1,240 1,230 126
Ranking is given out of 208 nations - (data from the World Bank)

Books on Bosnia & Herzegovina

REPUBLICAN REFERENCE

Area (sq.km)
51,129

Population
3,989,018

Capital
Sarajevo

Currency
Convertible Mark 

President 
Zivko Radisic

  

Update No: 089 - (30/09/04)

MI6 spies exposed by Balkan rivals
British spies in Bosnia and across the Balkans are being moved after being publicly identified in several media reports planted by disgruntled local intelligence services. 
The Secret Intelligence Service, better known as MI6, has been forced to withdraw its chief officer in the Serb capital, Belgrade, and another spy in the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo, is about to leave, reported the Daily Telegraph on September 28th.
A third man, who has also been branded a British spy in the Balkans, has left the office of the High Representative in Bosnia, Lord Ashdown, to take up a post elsewhere.
A further two British intelligence officers working in the Croatian capital, Zagreb, have so far remained in place despite their cover being blown in the local press.
The series of exposes in the three capitals has markedly undermined British intelligence operations in the Balkans, previously thought to have played a vital role in the handover of the former Yugoslav president Slobodan Milosevic to the International War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague.
But the continuing efforts of SIS officers to capture The Hague's most wanted men have riled many local intelligence agencies in the Balkans, some of which are suspected of continuing ties to alleged war criminals.
The SIS is heavily involved in the hunt for the former Bosnian Serb political leader, Radovan Karadzic, and military commander, Gen Ratko Mladic, who are linked to a vast range of war crimes including the murder of Srebrenica's surrendering male population and organising the siege of Sarajevo. 
Also being sought is the main Croatian war crimes suspect, Ante Gotovina, who is accused of forcing 150,000 Serbs from their homes in 1995.
"MI6 operated not so much a spy network as a network of influence within Balkan security services and the media," said James Lyon, the director of the International Crisis Group in Serbia and Bosnia. "It is some of those people who are now upset."

Building bridges 
The reopening of the Old Bridge at Mostar on 23 July 2004, a decade after its destruction by HVO units, has been generally seen as an important symbol of Bosnia's renewal. The fact that Croatia had contributed to the reconstruction, and that president Mesic and premier Sanader attended the ceremony, sent a clear signal that relations between the two neighbouring states should henceforth be neighbourly.
But serious reports of the occasion described Mostar's continued partition on an ethnic basis, as well as its altered national composition as a result of the war. The river Neretva, which for centuries bound the city together, now serves as a border between two separate zones, one controlled by the HDZ, the other by the SDA. The Old Bridge, for all its reborn beauty and the efforts invested in its resurrection, is thus at best an ambiguous symbol. Mitrovice in Kosovo provides another bridge whose divisive symbolism currently far outweighs its unifying potential. 
The bridge at Višegrad, made famous by Ivo Andric, has likewise gained additional dark connotations during the war of 1992-95, with numberless fresh bodies thrown into the Drina to join those cast there by the Chetniks of World War II. And does Andric himself not partake in striking measure of this symbolic ambiguity? Bosnia's no doubt greatest and certainly most famous modern writer, his relationship to the country and its interwoven confessional and national identities is nothing if not fraught. He moved from a Catholic Croat youth, via Yugoslavism and Mlada Bosna (like Gavrilo Princip), to an interwar diplomatic career tainted by anti-Albanian prejudice and loyalty to an unpalatable regime, only to emerge in postwar Belgrade as a pillar of the Communist establishment. 
Yet his great works, which eloquently evoke the glories and the horrors alike of Bosnia-Herzegovina's Muslim heritage, also espouse lofty humanist ideals. Like the bridges he celebrated and endowed with ambiguous symbolism, he too is part of the country's complex heritage. The Old Bridge once again spans the Neretva, but the city it was meant to serve remains divided. So long as this is true, the bridge will symbolize not unity but division. The dignitaries who rejoiced in its reopening now have a duty to ensure the rebirth of the old Mostar too, as a place where Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs could all once again live together. But it is hard to imagine how this could happen, without the country being released from the constitutional fetters imposed on it at Dayton.

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FOREIGN ECONOMIC COOPERATION

Bosnian Serb entity, Serbia to step up economic ties - premiers

The [Bosnian] Serb Republic (RS) Prime Minister, Dragan Mikerevic, said recently in Dobrun after talks with Serbian Prime Minister, Vojislav Kostunica, that it was necessary to step up efforts in the realization of the agreement on special relations between the Serb Republic and Serbia, and particularly with regard to economy, SRNA News Agency reported.
Mikerevic said that a meeting between the Serb Republic and Serbian prime ministers and certain ministries would take place in the near future in Belgrade to draft concrete measures for a comprehensive economic cooperation.
The Serbian prime minister said that the gathering in Dobrun [marking the 200th anniversary of the First Serbian Uprising] was a testimony to a successful cultural cooperation between Serbia and the Serb Republic because of the traditions which belonged to the same people living on the two banks of River Drina.
Kostunica took the view that more effort had to be invested in deepening economic cooperation in the spirit of the agreement on special relations, which provided a swifter flow of goods and people on both sides of the border.
The two prime ministers met in Dobrun Monastery.

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